Thursday, 11 November 2010

This Blog must Move!!

Assalamu alaykum wa rahmatu ALLAH to those who follow the Guidence

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We hope you enjoy of useful articles as we do.

Jazakum Allaho khayran

Wa assalamu alaykum to those who follow the guidence.

Wednesday, 13 October 2010

Hadith On Ayat ul Kursi

Hadith On Ayat ul Kursi

وقد ذكر البخاري .. عن أبي هريرة .. قال: وكلني رسول الله - صلى الله عليه وسلم - بحفظ زكاة رمضان فأتاني آت فجعل يحثو من الطعام فأخذته وقلت: لأرفعنك إلى رسول الله - صلى الله عليه وسلم - قال: دعني فإني محتاج وعلي عيال ولي حاجة شديدة قال فخليت عنه فأصبحت فقال النبي - صلى الله عليه وسلم - يا أبا هريرة ما فعل أسيرك البارحة؟ قال: قلت يا رسول الله شكا حاجة شديدة وعيالا فرحمته وخليت سبيله قال أما إنه قد كذبك وسيعود فعرفت أنه سيعود لقول رسول الله - صلى الله عليه وسلم - أنه سيعود فرصدته فجاء يحثو من الطعام فأخذته فقلت لأرفعنك إلى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال: دعني فإني محتاج وعلي عيال لا أعود فرحمته وخليت سبيله فأصبحت فقال لي رسول الله - صلى الله عليه وسلم - يا أبا هريرة ما فعل أسيرك البارحة قلت يا رسول الله شكا حاجة وعيالا فرحمته فخليت سبيله قال أما إنه قد كذبك وسيعود فرصدته الثالثة فجاء يحثو من الطعام فأخذته فقلت لأرفعنك إلى رسول الله بها وهذا آخر ثلاث مرات أنك تزعم أنك لا تعود ثم تعود فقال: دعني أعلمك كلمات ينفعك الله بها قلت وما هي؟ قال: إذا أويت إلى فراشك فاقرأ آية الكرسي "الله لا إله إلا هو الحي القيوم" حتى تختم الآية فإنك لن يزال عليك من الله حافظ ولا يقربك شيطان حتى تصبح فخليت سبيله فأصبحت فقال لي رسول الله - صلى الله عليه وسلم - ما فعل أسيرك البارحة؟ قلت يا رسول الله زعم أنه يعلمني كلمات ينفعني الله بها فخليت سبيله قال: ما هي؟ قال: قال لي إذا أويت إلى فراشك فاقرأ آية الكرسي من أولها حتى تختم الآية "الله لا إله إلا هو الحي القيوم" وقال لي لن يزال عليك من الله حافظ ولا يقربك شيطان حتى تصبح وكانوا أحرص شيء على الخير فقال النبي - صلى الله عليه وسلم - أما إنه صدقك وهو كذوب تعلم من تخاطب من ثلات ليال يا أبا هريرة قلت لا قال: ذاك شيطان

[Sahih Al-Bukhari: Volume 3, Book 38 Representation, Authorization, Business by Proxy , Number 505]

Narrated Abu Huraira (Radi Allah Anhu): Allah's Apostle (sal-allahu-alleihi- wasallam) deputed me to keep Sadaqat (al-Fitr) of Ramadan. A comer came and started taking handfuls of the foodstuff (of the Sadaqa) (stealthily) . I took hold of him and said, "By Allah, I will take you to Allah's Apostle (sal-allahu-alleihi- wasallam) ." He said, "I am needy and have many dependents, and I am in great need." I released him, and in the morning Allah's Apostle (sal-allahu-alleihi- wasallam) asked me, "What did your prisoner do yesterday?" I said, "O Allah's Apostle! The person complained of being needy and of having many dependents, so, I pitied him and let him go." Allah's Apostle said, "Indeed, he told you a lie and he will be coming again."
I believed that he would show up again as Allah's Apostle had told me that he would return. So, I waited for him watchfully. When he (showed up and) started stealing handfuls of foodstuff, I caught hold of him again and said, "I will definitely take you to Allah's Apostle (sal-allahu-alleihi- wasallam). He said, "Leave me, for I am very needy and have many dependents. I promise I will not come back again." I pitied him and let him go. In the morning Allah's Apostle (sal-allahu-alleihi- wasallam) asked me, "What did your prisoner do." I replied, "O Allah's Apostle! He complained of his great need and of too many dependents, so I took pity on him and set him free." Allah's Apostle said, "Verily, he told you a lie and he will return."

I waited for him attentively for the third time, and when he (came and) started stealing handfuls of the foodstuff, I caught hold of him and said, "I will surely take you to Allah's Apostle (sal-allahu-alleihi- wasallam) as it is the third time you promise not to return, yet you break your promise and come." He said, "(Forgive me and) I will teach you some words with which Allah will benefit you." I asked, "What are they?" He replied, "Whenever you go to bed, recite "Ayat-al-Kursi" -- 'Allahu la ilaha illa huwa-l-Haiy- ul Qaiyum' till you finish the whole verse. (If you do so), Allah will appoint a guard for you who will stay with you and no satan will come near you till morning. " So, I released him.

In the morning, Allah's Apostle (sal-allahu-alleihi- wasallam) asked, "What did your prisoner do yesterday?" I replied, "He claimed that he would teach me some words by which Allah will benefit me, so I let him go." Allah's Apostle (sal-allahu-alleihi- wasallam) asked, "What are they?" I replied, "He said to me, 'Whenever you go to bed, recite Ayat-al-Kursi from the beginning to the end ---- Allahu la ilaha illa huwa-lHaiy-ul- Qaiyum--- -.' He further said to me, '(If you do so), Allah will appoint a guard for you who will stay with you, and no satan will come near you till morning.' (Abu Huraira or another sub-narrator) added that they (the companions) were very keen to do good deeds. The Prophet (sal-allahu-alleihi- wasallam) said, "He really spoke the truth, although he is an absolute liar. Do you know whom you were talking to, these three nights, O Abu Huraira?" Abu Huraira said, "No." He (sal-allahu-alleihi- wasallam) said, "It was Satan."

Monday, 4 October 2010

Concerning the Multiplicity of Muslim Rulers

Concerning the Multiplicity of Muslim Rulers

Prepared by Abu `Iyaad Amjad Ibn Muhammad Rafiq
Refuting the doubt flung from many who ascribe themselves to al-Ikhwaan or Hizbut-Tahreer that the aayaat and ahaadeeth referring to the rulers are referring to the Caliph only.
So there is no harm in the multiplicity of Imaams and Sultaans and it is obligatory for those people in whose land his orders and prohibitions become effective to give obedience to him after having giving bay’ah to him. It is likewise for the people of all the other regions.


All Praise is due to Allaah and Prayer and Peace upon His Messenger Muhammad.

To proceed:

The Messenger (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) said: "The Khilaafah in my Ummah after me will be for thirty years. Then there will be kingship after that." [1]

Ibn Katheer also reports a variation of this hadeeth in his tafseer: "The Khilaafah will last for thirty years. Then there will be powerful kingship."
The Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam): "Prophethood will be amongst you for as long as Allaah wills, then Allaah will raise it up when He wills, then there will be Khilaafah upon the way of Prophethood, then Allaah will raise it up when He wills, then there will be biting Kingship, then oppressive Kingship, then Khilaafah upon the way of the Prophethood."

The Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) said: "The bonds of Islaam will collapse, one by one. Every time a bond collapses the people will hold rigorously to the one follows it. The first one to collapse is the rulership and the last one to collapse is the prayer." [2]
From the above narrations it should become clear that the Khilaafah upon the Prophetic Methodology lasted only for 30 years. And hence whatever came thereafter (with perhaps the exception of the Khilaafah of ‘Umar bin ‘Abdul-'Azeez) was kingship or tyrannical kingship. So from the Khilaafah of Yazeed up until this day of ours we have always had either a kingship or a tyrannical kingship. This is the reality, firstly.

Secondly, Al-Haafidh Ibn Hajar said in ‘al-Fath’: "The Fuqahaa (Jurists) are in agreement concerning the obligation to give obedience to the Sultaan who took over them by force and also to perform Jihaad along with him. [And that] obeying him is better than rebelling against him due to what this would contain of the shedding of blood and subduing of the common masses." [3]

Shaykh 'Abdul-Lateef Ibn ‘Abdur-Rahmaan Ibn Hasan aalush-Shaykh said, "And the People of Knowledge… are unanimously agreed concerning giving obedience to the one who took over them by force in whatever constitutes goodness. They see it necessary to fulfill his orders and hold the correctness of his Imaamah, leadership. No two people [amongst them] differ concerning that. They also deem it impermissible to rebel against him with the sword and to divide the Ummah, even if the leaders are sinful, so long as they do not see clear open disbelief. The various texts [of these Jurists] from the four Imaams and other than them and their likes in this regard are [certainly] present." [4]

Shaykhul-Islaam Muhammad Ibn 'Abdul-Wahhaab said: "The Imaams from every Madhhab are agreed concerning the one the forcefully took over a region or regions that he has the ruling of "Imaam" in all matters. If this had not been so then the affairs of the world would never have been established. This is because for a very long time, before the era of Imaam Ahmad till this day of ours, the people have never gathered behind a single Imaam. And they do not know anyone from the Scholars who has mentioned that any of the Sharee’ah rulings cannot be correct [effected, implemented] except by the overall Imaam [the Khaleefah]." [5]

As-San’aanee, in explanation of the hadeeth, "Whoever left obedience [to the Imaam] and separated from the Jamaa’ah and then died, then his is a death of Jaahiliyyah]", said: "His saying, ‘…left obedience…’, meaning obedience to the Khaleefah concerning whom there is agreement. And it is as if the intent here is the Khaleefah of a particular region because the people have never gathered together behind a single Khaleefah in all the lands of Islaam since the time of the 'Abbaasee State. Rather, the people of every region were independent with someone presiding over their affairs. If the hadeeth was taken to mean the overall Khaleefah which the people of Islam had united behind, there would have been no benefit in it." [6]

Ash-Shawkaanee said, "As for when Islaam spread and its territories expanded and its regions became distant [from each other], then it is known that in all of these regions loyalty was given to an Imaam or Sultaan… So there is no harm in the multiplicity of Imaams and Sultaans and it is obligatory for those people in whose land his orders and prohibitions become effective to give obedience to him after having giving bay’ah to him. It is likewise for the people of all the other regions." [7]

The Shaykh and Imaam, ’Abdul-Lateef Ibn ’Abdur-Rahmaan Ibn Hasan aalush-Shaykh - may Allaah have mercy upon them all - said, in powerful words that uncover the confusing doubts in this topic and that refute the one who spreads them from amongst the ignoramuses: "… And those people - those who are under trial - do not know that with the exception of ’Umar Ibn ’Abdul-’Azeez and whoever Allaah willed from among the Banee Umayyah - great mishaps, insolence, taking up arms [against the people] and corruption occurred from most of those in charge [wullaat] of the people of Islaam from the time of Yazeed Ibn Mu’aawiyah [till the present]. But along with that, the manner and behaviour of the notable scholars and mighty leaders with the rulers is well-known and renowned - they do not raise a hand against giving obedience in that which Allaah and His Messenger have commanded from among the legislated actions and obligatory duties of Islaam.

And I will give you an example - that of al-Hajjaaj Ibn Yoosuf ath-Thaqafee, and his affair is well known in the ummah - that of oppression, repression, excessiveness in spilling the blood [of the Muslims], desecration of the Sanctities of Allaah, the killing of whomever he killed amongst the notables of the ummah such as Sa’eed bin Jubair, the besieging of Ibn az-Zubair even though he had sought refuge in the Haram, and making lawful the sacred and sanctified, the killing of Ibn az-Zubair - even though Ibn az-Zubair had given obedience to him and the people of Makkah, Madeenah, Yemen, and most of 'Iraaq had given the pledge of allegiance to him [Ibn az-Zubair] and al-Hajjaaj was only a deputy of Marwaan, and then of his son 'Abdul-Maalik and none of the khulafaa’ (successors) had given Marwaan a pledge and none of the influential people, those with power had given the pledge of allegiance to him. And along with all of this none of the People of Knowledge hesitated in obeying him and complying with him in that in which obedience is permissible from amongst the pillars of Islaam and its obligations.

And Ibn ‘Umar and whoever met al-Hajjaaj were from amongst the Companions of Allaah’s Messenger (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam), and they never contested with him and nor did they prevent obedience to him in that by which Islaam is established and by which eemaan (faith) is perfected. And it is likewise for those who were also in the era of al-Hajjaaj from among the taab’ieen such as Ibn al-Musayyib, al-Hasan al-Basree, Ibn Seereen, Ibraaheem at-Taymee and those like them from among the leaders of the ummah.

And the affair continued like this between the leading scholars of the ummah - they would enjoin obedience to Allaah and His Messenger and making jihaad in His path along with every leader [imaam] whether righteous or sinful, as is well known in the books of the fundamental principles and beliefs of the religion.

And similarly, Banoo al-‘Abbaas, they conquered the lands of the Muslims forcefully, with the sword - and not one of the People of Knowledge and Religion aided them in that - and they killed hordes of people and many of the creation from among the Banoo 'Umayyah, their leaders and their deputies. And they killed Ibn Hubayrah, the ameer of 'Iraaq and they also killed Marwaan, the khaleefah - and it was reported that the murderers killed around eighty people from the Banoo 'Umayyah in a single day - and then they placed their blankets above the corpses, sat upon them and then called for food and drink.

So along with all of that the conduct of the leading scholars - such as al-‘Awzaa’ee, Maalik, al-Layth ibn Sa’d, ‘Ataa Ibn Abee Rabaah - with those kings is not hidden from the one who has a share in knowledge and realization. And then next generation of the People of Knowledge such as Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, Muhammad Ibn Ismaa’eel, Muhammad Ibn Idrees, Ahmad Ibn Nooh, Ishaaq Ibn Rahawayh and their brothers … their occurred in their time what occurred from the kings of the great innovations and the denial of the Sifaat (Attributes of Allaah) and they were called to [affirm] these things and were put to trial by them] and whoever was killed, was killed such as Ahmad Ibn Nasr. But along with all of this it is not known that a single one of them raised his hand against obedience [to those kings] and that he saw fit to attack them…" [8]
Therefore, in light of the above it is necessary to give obedience to whomever is appointed over the Muslims, whether this occurs by their agreement or otherwise, in all the various lands. However this obedience is conditional in that it should be upon the ma’roof, (good) since there is no obedience to the creation in disobedience to the creation. This is the Salaf of the earliest times and those of current times are upon, including Shaykh Ibn ’Uthaymeen, Ibn Baaz (rahimahullaah), Shaykk Saalih al-Fawzaan and Shaykh al-Albaanee. In a cassette lecture Shaykh Ibn Baaz was asked concerning the rulers of some of the Muslim lands to day, such as the Middle Eastern countries, are they ‘Wullaatul-Umoor’ and he replied in the affirmative, this cassette is in my possession.


Concerning the issue of ruling by other than what Allaah has revealed, then this is a great topic which cannot be discussed on the likes of this forum. I recommend that you await the release of "Fitnatut-Takfeer" of Shaykh al-Albaanee. This contains the fatwaas of Shaykh al-Albaanee, Shaykh Ibn Baaz and Shaykh Ibn 'Uthaymeen on this great topic. And all of them are in agreement. Takfeer is not to be performed upon a ruler until it is known that he rejected Allaah’s rule as a matter of belief, or that he deemed secular law more superior to that of Islaam, or he viewed Islaam to be outmoded, backward etc. As for the one who replaces the Sharee’ah with secular law (tabdeel) then he too is not to be judged kaafir automatically until it is known that his action occurred from him due to his belief that secular law is superior etc. Likewise for the one who refers to secular law for judgement and makes it a reference point, he too is not to be judged a kaafir unless it is known from him that he holds this to be permissible as a matter of belief.

This is what the Shaykhs are upon and this is clear and manifest from there works. We finish below with just a few quotations but there are many more and I suggest you wait for the aforementioned book or refer to it in Arabic:
Ibnul-Qayyim in Kitaabur-Rooh - explaining the types of rule - so he mentioned the Shar’ul-Munazzal (the hukm of the Sharee’ah) and the Shar’ul-Mu’awwal (and this is the hukm of the scholars and mujtahids - and then he said:

"And as for the replaced law (al-hukmul-mubaddal) - and THAT IS RULING BY OTHER THAN WHAT ALLAAH HAS REVEALED - then it is not permissible to implement it nor to act by it, and it is not permissible to follow it, and the one guilty of it (saahibuhu) is BETWEEN (THE STATES) OF KUFR (DISBELIEF), FUSOOQ (REBELLION) AND DHULM (OPPRESSION)."

Shaikh Ibn ’Uthaymeen said, "And there is a doubt (shubhah) with many of the youth, which has become firmly and deeply rooted in their minds and it has kindled the issue of revolting against the rulers - and it is: that those rulers replace the Sharee’ah (haa’ulaa`il-Hukkaam MUBADDILOON), they prescribe the (secular) laws from themselves and they do not rule by what Allaah has revealed and the rule is present - but they prescribed laws from themselves. So (these youth) judged them with apostasy and disbelief and then they built upon this that so long as those rulers are disbeliever it is necessary to kill them, and does not matter that we are in a state of weakness. Because (not fighting) in the state of weakness was abrogated by the verses of the sword (permitting fighting), therefore there is no place for acting (as if we were) in the state of weakness - as they say - that state that the Muslims in Makkah were in!

So the answer to this doubt is that we say: "There is no escaping from that we know firstly: Does the description of apostasy apply to them or not? And this requires knowing the evidences which indicate that this saying or action is apostasy, then applying them to an individual, and then, whether this individual has any doubts (which may excuse him) or not? Meaning: Sometimes a text can indicate that this action is kufr and this saying is kufr, but there are preventive barriers which prevent the application of the ruling of kufr upon this specific individual… and these preventive barriers are many, amongst them dhann (speculation) which is ignorance and amongst them ghalabah (which means being overcome by something)…"

Then the shaykh gives some examples from the sunnah - so he mentions the hadeeth of the man who asked for his body to be burned after his death and the ashes to be scattered across the earth. So the shaykh explains that the outward manifestation of his 'aqeedah is kufr, and doubt in the power of Allaah. And the shaykh gives the example of the one who when he finds his lost camel in the desert says: "O Allaah, you are my servant and I am your Lord". So the shaykh says that this is a word of kufr, but the one who says it is not to be declared a disbeliever, because he was overcome (i.e. had no power of it) due to the intensity of his happiness. And the Shaykh also gives the example of "the one who is compelled to kufr - so he utters a word of kufr, or does an action of kufr, but he is not to be declared a disbeliever by a text of the Qur’aan, because he does not desire it and has not made it his choice." [9]

Shaykh Muhammad Ibn Ibraaheem aalush-Shaykh said: "The actualization of the meaning of 'Muhammad is the Messenger (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) is from judging to his sharee'ah and confining oneself to that and rejecting whatever is in opposition to that from amongst the rules (qawaaneen) and regulations and all those things for which Allaah has not revealed any authority. And these rules - the one who judges by them (hakama bihaa) or refers to them (haakama ilayhaa) - for judgement whilst believing in the correctness (sihhah) of that or the permissibility (to judge by them) (jawaaz), then he is a kaafir with the kufr that ejects from the Religion. And if he does that without belief (i'tiqaad) in their correctness and (regarding it) permissible to judge by them (jawaaz), then he is a kaafir with the kufr in action, which does not eject from the religion." [10]

Likewise he (rahimahullaah) said: "The laws (al-qawaaneen) are kufr [i.e.] the belief (i'tiqaad) that they are permissible and are decisive (haakimah)." [11]

And also: "Whoever believes (i'taqada) in the permissibility (jawaaz) of ruling by what opposes the Rule of Allaah and His Messenger", and "believes (i’taqada) that other than the rule of the Messenger is better"[12]

Also from Shaykhul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah "or (the one) who replaced the Sharee’ah (baddala ash-Shar’) - that [from it] which is agreed upon - he is a kaafir, an apostate by agreement of the jurists..." [13]

Further on he says: "And the word Shar' it is used - in the understanding of men - with three meanings..." so he mentions Shar’ul-Munazzal (that which is revealed -the Book and the Sunnah) and Shar’ul-Mu’awwal (the opinions of the scholars etc...) and then said:

"And the third: Shar’ul-Mubaddal - and this is lying against Allaah and against His Messenger or upon the people with a false testimony and its likes, and clear oppression. So whoever says: 'Indeed, this is from the Shar’ of Allaah (i.e. a particular ruling a law), then he has disbelieved - there being no doubt or dispute in this - such as the one who says: 'That consuming blood and the dead animal is lawful'". [14]

So the definition of tabdeel that ejects from the religion is introducing/changing laws and then claiming/believing that what has been introduced is from Allaah! Both things have to be their, the action and the belief for takfeer to apply.

In fact in the same statement [3/267] the completion of his words shows the real intent of his words:
"or (the one) who replaced the Sharee'ah (baddala ash-Shar') - that [from it] which is agreed upon - he is a kaafir, an apostate by agreement of the jurists and it is regarding the likes of this that the verse was revealed - according to one of two sayings: "and whoever does not judge by what Allaah has revealed, they are the disbelievers" - meaning that it is the one who holds the belief (or declares) ruling by other than what Allaah has revealed to be permissible..."

There is much more but I hope this will suffice to remove the various doubts and misconceptions which are often propagated by the political activists of today.


[1] Saheeh – Reported by Ahmad, Tirmidthee, Aboo Ya’laa.
[2] ]Reported by Imaam Ahmad and Ibn Hibbaan. Ibn Hibbaan put it under the chapter heading, "A mention of the narrations that the first appearance of the breakdown of the bonds of Islaam will come from the corruption of the rule and the rulers."
[3] Related in Fathul Baaree (7/13).
[4] Majmoo’ur Rasaa`il wal-Masaa’ilun-Najdiyyah (3/128)
[5] ad-Durarus-Sunniyyah fil-Ajwibatun-Najdiyyah (7/239)
[6] Subulus-Salaam Sharh Bulooghul-Maraam min Adillatil-Ahkaam (3/499)
[7] as-Saylul-Jarraar (4/512)
[8] ad-Durarus-Sunniyyah fil Ajwibatun-Najdiyyah (7/177-178).
[9] at-Tahdheer min Fitnatit-Takfeer of Shaykh Naasir (p. 105-107).
[10] Fataawaa Shaykh Ibraaheem (10/9)
[11] Fataawaa Shaykh Ibraaheem (12/280)
[12] Fataawaa Shaykh Ibraaheem (12/280-291)

[13] Fataawaa Shaykh Ibraaheem (3/267)
[14] Fataawaa Shaykh Ibraaheem (3/268)

Taken from:

Thursday, 30 September 2010

The Dislike of Marriage with Women from the People of the Book -nowadays-

The Dislike of Marriage with Women from the People of the Book -nowadays-

The Dislike of Marriage with Women from the People of the Book

In the name of Allah the Most Beneficent Most Merciful,
The Dislike of Marriage with Women from the People of the Book -nowadays- and its Evil Consequences by Sheikh ‘Abdul ‘Azeez bin Baaz -may Allah have mercy upon him- [Reference below]:

The Imaam, Sheikh ‘Abdul ‘Azeez bin ‘Abdillah bin Baaz -may Allahs mercy be upon him- says:

Marriage with other than Muslim Women contains in it elaboretness. [TN: It's not as simple as we think. And the Sheikh will explain bi ithnillah]. Idolatresses, Communist and likewise Buddhist Women are not permissible to marry. As for chaste women from the People of the Book who are known for having chastity, decency and being distant from the avenues of fornication, they are considered the chaste ones.

So it is permissible for a Muslim Man to marry a chaste woman (from the People of the Book). However he leaves off that which is more virtuous and foremost and what is farther away from evil (i.e. marrying the Muslimah).

Because marrying this women could perhaps lead him to becoming a Christian (or Jew) -and Allahs refuge is sought- or possibly lead the children to becoming Christians (or Jews). And this is the reason why ‘Umar and a group from the Salaf disliked that (type of marriage although it is permitted) fearing for that person the evil consequences behind it. Nontheless the origin is that it is halaal (lawful).

Just as He the Most High and Exalted says in His Noble Book in Surah al-Maaidah: {Made lawful to you today are At-Tayyibat [all kinds of Hall foods, which Allh has made lawful (meat of slaughtered eatable animals, milk products, fats, vegetables and fruits). The food of the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) is lawful to you and yours is lawful to them. (Lawful to you in marriage) are chaste women from the believers and chaste women from those who were given the Scripture (Jews and Christians) before your time, when you have given their due Mahr, desiring chastity (i.e. taking them in legal wedlock) not committing illegal sexual intercourse nor taking them as girl-friends.}5:5

Thus Allah has permitted marriage to those women from the People of the Book (who are chaste). And a Muhsanah is one who is free, chaste and known (to the people) for chastity and decency. So when is this known from her?! When is it known that she is chaste in (places like) America or England or in any place?! This is petrifyingly dangerous. The advice is that he (the Muslim Man) should not marry her (the disbelieving women from the People of the Book) But if you find a chaste woman (from amongst them) who her chastity can be testified to then it is permissible to do so, yet he leaves off what is better (i.e. a Muslimah).

Because it is a means for him becoming a Christian (or Jew) due to his love for her or his children after him whether it be during his lifetime or after his death.

And there is no might or power except with Allah!

And may peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family and companions.

Taken from:

Translated by: Abu Fouzaan Qaasim

Thursday, 23 September 2010

The Forms Devils Can Take

The Forms Devils Can Take

Ibn Taymia recorded concerning al-Hallaaj: “He was a magician, and sometimes devils would serve him. He was with some of his companions on Abu Qabis Mountain. They asked him for some sweets. He went off to a place close by and brought a plate of sweets. Later it was determined that those sweets has been stolen from a store in Yemen and a devil had carried it to that place.”

And Ibn Taymia also wrote:

Things like that happen to many, besides al-Hallaaj, who live evil lives. We know of many such people during our time and other times. Like the man who is now [during ibn Taymia’s time] in Damascus. Satan used to carry him from Salihiya Mountains to villages around Damascus. He would be carried through the air to the windows of houses and enter the houses with the people seeing him. He would come at night to the Small Gate [one of the six gates around Damascus at that time] and he and his companions would be seen there. And he is one of the most wicked people. One of them was in a fortified prison in a city called Al-Shahida. He would go through the air to the top of a mountain and people would see him. A devil used to carry him. He was a highway robber.

Most such people are leaders of evil. One of them was called al-Barsha Abu al-Majib. His tent was pitched for him once on a dark night. Bread was made in the manner of an offering. They did not mention Allah. And there was none among them who would mention Allah nor had they any book containing Allah’s name. Then al-Barsha rose in the air. They watched him and heard him speak to Satan and heard Satan speak to him. Whoever laughed or stole some of the bread would be hit without knowing who hit him. Then Satan informed them of some things they had asked about. Then he ordered them to sacrifice a cow, horse or similar animal. [He told them] to strangle the animal and not to mention the name of Allah upon it. When they would do that, he would then fulfil their needs.

Ibn Taimiya also mentioned a Sufi sheikh

Who said about himself that he used to commit adultery and sodomize boys. He said, “A black dog with two white spots between his eyes would say to me, ‘So and so will come to you about an oath he made by you and I have fulfilled his need on your behalf.’ Then the person would come with an oath and that disbelieving sheikh would already tell him about it.

And ibn Taimiya mentioned from the same man, “If anyone desired me to change anything, like glue, then I would speak until I lost my senses and then I would find the glue in my hand or my mouth and not know who put it there.” And he said, “ When I walked at night, I would have a black staff with a light in front of me.” Ibn Taymia said, “When that shaikh repented and started to pray, fast and avoid the forbidden acts. The black dog left him. And the alterations stopped and he could not produce glue or anything else.”

Ibn Taimiya also mentioned another shaikh who would send his devils to posses certain people. The family of those people would come to the shaikh asking him to rescue their relatives. Then that shaikh would tell his devils to leave that person. The family would then pay that shaikh lots of money for his services. Sometimes the jinn would bring the shaikh money and food that they had stolen from people. Some people had some figs. The shaikh asked his devils for some figs and they brought those figs to him. When the owners went to their containers, they found the figs gone.

Ibn Taimiya mentions another person who was busy in acquiring knowledge. The devils came to him to deceive him. They said to him, “We have made the prayer no longer obligatory on you. And we will bring you whatever you need.” Then they would bring him sweets or fruits. This continued until he met some true scholars of the sunnah who asked him to repent. Then he paid the owners of the sweets for the sweets he had eaten while being tempted by the devils. (All of the above quotes are from ibn Taimiya, Jaami al-Rasaail-, pp. 190-194).

In Majmu al-Fatawa, ibn Taimiya explained some of ways of the devils in tempting people. He wrote,

I know some people whom plants would talk to and tell them of their beneficial ingredients. Actually, Satan who had entered the plant was the one talking. And I know people to whom the bushes and rocks would say, “Welcome, o devoted servant of Allah.” If they read “The Verse of the Throne” (al- Baqarah 255) all of that would stop. I know of some people who go bird hunting and the sparrows and others say to them, “Take me so the poor can eat me.” A Satan had entered the bird and spoken in the same way he enters humans and speaks from them. And some people are in their houses with the doors locked and see themselves outside while they did not open the door and vice-versa. Similar is the case with the city gates. Jinn take them in and out of them quickly. Lights would appear while actually it was Satan appearing like his friend. If they recite “The Verse of the Throne” over and over, all of that stops. [Majmoo al-Fatawa, vol. 11, p. 300].

And ibn Taimiya wrote,

I know of people who are spoken to by something that says, “I am from the commands of Allah”. And he tells the person that he is the Mahdi that the Prophet gave glad tidings of. And he performs supernatural acts for him. For example, if he even thinks of flying with birds or locusts through the air or if he desires them to go to the right or left, they do whatever he wishes. Or if he thinks to get some cattle up or have them sleep or leave, it happens for him without any apparent movement on his part. And they take him to Makkah and back. Someone will be brought to him in a beautiful form and he will be told that it is one of the noble angels who has come to visit him. The man will say to himself, “How [can the angels] look like a beardless youth.” Then he will look up again and find that he has a beard. It will be said to him, “The sign that you are the Mahdi is that you have specific birthmark”. He will look and he will see it. All of that is from the plots of Satan.

Ibn Taimiya also wrote,

The people of misguidance and heresies, those who are ascetic worshippers but not according to the manner prescribed by the Shariah, sometimes have strong influence that draws many to the places of Satan in which is prohibited to pray. This is because the devils descend upon them and the devils talk to them about some matters in the same way they talk to the fortune-tellers. In the same manner, they enter the statues and idols and talk to the worshipper of the idols. And they help them in some of their needs in the same manner they help magicians. In a similar fashion, they help the worshipers of idols , the sun, the moon and the planets when they worship them in a manner they think that are deserving of, of sanctifying them, to dressing and lighting incense for them and so on. Devils, that they call the “spirits of the planets”, descend upon them and meet some of their needs. [Majmoo, vol. 19, p.41.]

Monday, 20 September 2010



It is mentioned in the explanation of the Creed of at-Tahaawi,

There are some devils that the people call invisible men. Some people converse with them. They perform for the people some “miracles” that make the humans believe that they are close friends of Allah. Some of them aid the polytheist against the Muslims. Some say that the Messenger order them to kill the Muslims along with the polytheists because the Muslims were sinful.

The commentator of the Creed noted,

In reality they are the brother of the polytheist. The people of knowledge are in three groups with respect to invisible men. (1) One group denies the existence of such invisible men. But the people have witnessed them. And it is confirmed that some trustworthy people have witnessed them and have related what they saw. (2) A group that admits their existence and accepts it as a will of Allah. They believe, therefore, that there is a hidden path to Allah other than the path of the Prophets. (3) A group that rules out the existence of patrons of Allah outside of the framework of the Messenger but they believe both groups have received help from Allah. These people give glorification to the Messenger, being ignorant of his religion and laws.

Then he says, making clear what they and their followers are:

The truth of the matter is that they are all followers of the devils. The “invisible men” are nothing but jinn who are called men, as Allah says, “Indeed men of the humans used to invoke the protection of men of the jinn...” (al-Jinn 6). And the humans have company with them and witness and see them. Sometimes they cannot be seen but it is not the case that they keep themselves hidden from mankind. Those who think that they are humans are mistaken and ignorant.

Then he explains the reason for the differences of opinion about them and the reasons for their existence of three groups mentioned above,

The problem lies in not differentiating between the patrons of Satan and the patrons of Allah. It is obligatory to compare the actions of the people (or of the invisible men) and their statemens to the book of Allah and the sunnah of the Prophet (peace be upon him). What agrees with these two guides is correct and what disagrees with them is wrong. No matter what a person does and exposes of his deeds, he will not be a believer or devotee of Allah, even if he flies in the air or walks on water, as long as he does not stick to the Book and Sunnah.

[ Sharh al-Aqeeda al-Tahaawiya, pp. 571-572]

Sheikh ul Islam Ibn Taimiya said regarding distinguishing between situations of Allah and situations of Shaytan,

The one who cannot distinguish between Godly situations and Satanic situations will have truth resembling falsehood in his eyes. One whom Allah does not enlighten his heart and give him the reality of faith and following the Quran will not know the path of truth from falsehood. He will confuse the two situations in the same way people were confused by Musailama the liar of Yemen and other liars who claimed to be prophets.

  [Jaami al-Rasaail, p. 197].

Wednesday, 15 September 2010



The Prophet (salallaho aleihi wa sallam) said,

ا لجن ثلاثة اصناف فصنف يطير في الهواء وصنف حيات وكلاب وصنف يحلون ويظعنون

“There are three types of jinn: one that flies through the air, one that are snakes and dogs, and one which stay in places and travel about”

[This was recorded by at-Tabarani and al-Haakim and by al-Baihaqi in Al-Asmaa wa as-Sifaat with sahih isnad. See Muhammad Naasir al-Deen al-Albani, sahih al-Jaami al-Sagheer, vol.3, p. 85.]

Tuesday, 14 September 2010

The Soothsayers Are The Messengers of Satan

The Soothsayers Are The Messengers of Satan

Ibn al-Qayyim has written,

Fortunetellers and soothsayers are messengers of Satan. This is so because the polytheists hasten to them. They rush to them in anticipation when anything important is happening and they believe in their words. They take them as the decider of their affairs and they are pleased with their rulings. This is the same behaviour that the followers of the messengers [of Allah] have towards the messengers. They believe that [these fortune tellers] have knowledge of the unseen things that no one else knows about. So for the people who make idolatry through them, they are in the place of messengers. In reality, the fortune tellers and soothsayers are truly the messengers of Satan. He sends them to his party of polytheists and makes them appear like truthful messengers until his party responds to them in order to take them away from the messengers of Allah. They consider their messengers to be truthful ones who have knowledge of the unseen. Since there is such a great difference and contradiction between the two, the Messenger of Allah (peace be on him) said, “Whoever goes to a fortune-teller and believes in what he says he has disbelieved in what has been revealed to Muhammad”.

So people are of two categories: followers of the fortune-tellers and followers of the [true] messengers [of Allah]. One person cannot be of both the latter and the former. In fact, the further he goes from the Messenger by the amount that he believes in the fortune-teller.

Ibn al-Qayyim, Ighaatha al-Luhfaan, vol. 1, p. 271

Saturday, 11 September 2010

Making the spirits appear is an ancient claim

Making the spirits appear is an ancient claim

The claim of making spirits appear is not of recent invention, but it is an ancient claim indeed.

Ibn Taimiya wrote,

“ From those people [that is, those people of satanic influence involved in idolatry, polytheism, magic and so forth] are those who believe that if one of them dies, he returns to them after his death and talk to them, pays their debts, returns their pledges and advises them. He appears to them in the shape that he was during his life. It is a Satan who appears in his form and they think it is actually him.”

Ibn Taimiya, Jaami al-Rasaail, pp. 194- 195.

Tuesday, 24 August 2010

Those Who Warn Against Reading Fath ul Baaree And Sharh Saheeh Muslim

Those Who Warn Against Reading

Fath ul Baaree And Sharh Saheeh Muslim

If I had authority over those that speak against reading Fath ul Baaree and Sharh (Saheeh Muslim) of An-Nawawi; then I would take them and put them in prison until they repent.
For this statement (of theirs) is not said except by a foolish one, that of not reading Fath and Sharh Muslim.

Some youth once asked me: ‘what do you say about reading the books of the innovators such as Ibn Hajr and An-Nawawi and other than them?’ so I said to them: ‘If I were in charge; I would shackle you all; and then I would throw you all in prisons.’

This questioning of theirs is misguidance and a straying from the right path.

Shaykh Hammaad al-Ansaaree

Majmoo' fee tarjumah Hammaad Al-Ansaaree volume 2 pages 582 & 584

Translated by Aboo Haatim Muhammad Farooq

Friday, 13 August 2010

Obedience to the ruler

Obedience to the ruler

( Part No : 9,Page No:103)

Q: Many questions raised about the statement that Your Eminence declared: "Obeying the ruler is Obligatory" and the Hadith: He who obeys the commander (appointed by me) obeys me. Should we obey the ruler in everything?

A: This is a Hadithrelated by Al-Bukhari and Muslim in the Two Sahih (authentic) Books of Hadith (i.e. Al-Bukhari and Muslim)on the authority of Abu Hurayrah in which the Prophet (peace be upon him) stated, Whoever obeys the commander (appointed by me) obeys me and whoever disobeys the commander disobeys me. Moreover, Allah (glory be to Him) states in His Glorious Book, O you who believe! Obey Allâh and obey the Messenger (Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم), and those of you (Muslims) who are in authority.

This ruling is general and its meaning is qualified by other Hadiths from the Sunnah, as both the Quran and the Sunah are integrated and their rulings restrict each other. That is to say, the general meaning in the book of Allah can be defined by a Hadith of the Prophet (peace be upon him) and vice versa. Thus, the Ayah under discussion is among the positions which the Sunnah confines its meaning. Allah (Exalted be He) stated, and those of you (Muslims) who are in authority. It is reported in the authentic Sunnah of the Prophet, Obedience is obligatory only in what is good. Those in authority should not be obeyed except in lawful matters. Similarly, parents, a husband, etc., should not be obeyed except in lawful matters as stated in aforementioned Hadith and the statement of the Prophet (peace be upon him) in the other Hadith, No one is bound to obey a creature in defiance to the Creator. When the Prophet (peace be upon him) said to the Sahabah (the Prophet's companions, may Allah be pleased with them), You will be ruled by leaders and you will find from them good matters and abominable matters.

( Part No : 9,Page No:104)

They asked, "O Allah's Messenger, what do you command us to do? Should not we declare war on them?" He (peace be upon him) said, "No, fulfill the rights due to them and ask Allah for the rights due to you." According to another narration, he (peace be upon him) stated, Give them their due rights and ask Allah for your rights. According to another wording: No, unless you see an evident infidelity on which you have a proof from Allah. Another narration states: No, so long as they establish Salah (prayer) among you. Accordingly, submission and obedience to rulers are established by the authentic Hadiths but are restricted to the lawful matters.

Saturday, 7 August 2010

The Etiquette of Lending Books

The Etiquette of Lending Books

From the etiquettes related to books, also, is: The manners of lending out books. Giving out books for people to borrow is not allowed unless you are giving them to someone that you trust will care for the books. The reason for this is because you have the most right to your book, unless you find someone else that is in need of the book and who, when he finishes using it, will return it back to you.

It is mentioned in the biography of Al-Khateeb Al-Baghdaadee that a man once asked him if he could borrow one of his books, so he replied saying: “You have three days to use it.” The man said: “That is not enough time.” So Al-Khateeb said: “I have counted its pages, so if you want to make a copy of it, then three days is sufficient for you. And if you want to read it, then three days is sufficient for you. And if you want to do more than that with it, then I have the most right to my book.”

This is correct, since in the past I had lent the first volume of a large book consisting of eight volumes to a brother - I don’t want to mention the title of the book, since perhaps he may hear this and think I’m insinuating him - and now nearly twelve years have passed on, and he still has not returned it to me,. And he tells me he doesn’t know where he put it. Similarly, the eighth volume of another set – even though I’m not worried so much over it – however, more than twenty years have passed and until now, he has not given it back. This is why a poet once said:

“Do not lend your books
And make your answer some excuse
Whoever does in fact lend a book,
I swear, he has not done something good.”

Another person said: “The perdition of books is in lending them.”
It was once said to a man from India who had opened up a huge library: “How did you create this library?” He replied: “By borrowing books from people.” He was asked: “How?” So he said: “I borrow a book and don’t return it. This is how I was able to create this library.” The man asked: “Isn’t this a crime against those you borrow from?” He replied: “Whoever lends his books to people is crazy. And whoever gives back what he borrows is even crazier than him.”

This is since souls are attached to books. In his book al-Qawaa’id, while speaking about a principle, Al-Haafidh Ibn Rajab mentioned that there is no capital punishment of cutting the hand for stealing them – i.e. if a person steals a book, then according to some scholars, he does not have to have his hand cut off. This is since there is a doubt in this – i.e. that the truth contained in books is for everyone.

So for example, one of your fellow students or colleagues may get a book and then believe that he has a right to it, especially if the book is a charitable copy or it was given to you as a gift or so on. So this would cause him to take the issue of returning it lightly. He will be lax in giving the book back. and you will be the one who loses out on the book.

Therefore, if you are not sure if the one who is asking to borrow a book from you is serious and will benefit from it in a short amount of days and nights, then do not lend him the book. This is since when you lend your books out to people, you are depriving yourself from their benefit. And not every one that borrows a book can be trusted with it, for how many people have borrowed books and not retuned them!

- Shaikh Saalih bin ‘Abdil-’Azeez Aali Shaikh

Taalib-ul-’Ilmi wal-Kutub‘ (pg. 11-12)

Friday, 30 July 2010

Silatur Rahm Joining the Ties of Relations

Silatur Rahm Joining the Ties of Relations

Relatives are those who are related to you through blood and close ties; such as the brother, the uncle, the aunty, or their children. Everyone who has a tie of relation with you has certain rights upon you in accordance with how closely they are related to you. About this, Allaah - the Most High - said:
"And give to the relative his right." [Soorah al-lsraa 17:26].
Allaah - the Most High - also said:
"And worship Allaah alone, and do not set-up any partner to Him in worship, and be kind and good to the parents, and to the relatives." [Soorah an-Nisaa 4:36].

So it is obligatory upon everyone to treat their relatives in the best possible manner, and to support them in accordance with their needs, and what they seek of help and support. And this is what is necessitated by the Sharee'ah (Prescribed Islaamic Law), the 'aql (sound reasoning) and the fitrah (natural state).

And there are many textual evidences encouraging and urging silatur-rahm (joining the ties of relations); such as what Abu Hurayrah radiallaahu 'anhu relates from the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam, that he said:

"Indeed Allaah created the creation, until when He finished doing so, the Rahm (womb/ties of relation) stood-up and said: Is this the place of one who seeks refuge in You from those who severe and cut ties with me. So Allaah said: Yes, Indeed. Would it please you that I keep ties with those who keep ties with You, and cut-off ties with those who cut-off ties with you? So the Rahm said: Yes, indeed! So Allaah said: Then this is for you."

Then Allaah's Messenger sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam said:

"Recite if you wish: 'Would you then, if you were given the authority, cause corruption in the land, and cut-off ties of relations. They are those upon whom is the curse of Allaah, so that He makes them deaf and blinds them." [Soorah Muhammad 47:22-23]."2

The Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam also said:

"Whosoever believes in Allaah and the Last Day let him keep the ties of relations."3

Unfortunately, many people do not fulfill this haqq (right) and transgress the bounds concerning this. Some of them do not seek to join ties with relatives or show kindness to them; neither through wealth, nor through good behaviour, nor through the giving of occasional gifts and presents nor through rendering help to them in their rimes of need. indeed, many days or months may pass without even seeing or visiting them. And sometimes, rather than seeking to join ties of relations, some people even intend to severe such ties, by seeking to harm their relatives - either through words, or action, or both. Such people may even keep close ties with those who are not relation, yet cut-off ties with relatives!

Some people only keep ties of relations with those who maintain ties with them, but cut-off from those who cut-off from them. So such people are not truly the waasils (those who keeps ties of relations), but rather they are those who do so based upon tit for rat. So they will only keep ties with those who keep ties with them whether relatives, or other than them. However, the true waasil (one who keeps ties of relations) is the one who keeps ties of relation for the sake of Allaah - regardless of whether his relations keep ties with him or not. 'Abdullaah ibn 'Amr radiallaahu 'anhu relates that the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam said: "The waasil (one who keeps the ties of relations) is not the one who merely does so out of reciprocation. Rather, the waasil is the one who even when the relatives cut-off from him, yet he still maintains ties with them." So a man asked: O Messenger of Allaah. I have relatives with whom I maintain ties of relations, yet they cut-off from me. I treat them kindly, yet they treat me in an evil manner. And I am forbearing and patient with them, yet they behave rudely and ignorantly towards me. The Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam said: "If the situation is as you say, then it is as if you are filling their mouths with sand. And Allaah will continue to aid and support you as long as you continue doing what you are doing."4

If there were no other rewards for keeping ties of relations, except that Allaah keeps ties with the waasil in this world and the Hereafter, and that He extends His Mercy due to it, and makes affairs easier through it, and removes distress and anxieties by it, then that would be more than sufficient. However, along with this, silatur-rahim (joining the ties of relations) brings with it closeness to one's family and relatives, as well as love and compassion developing between one another, and their being mutual help, in times of ease and hardship. between one another, and other such joys and delights - as is experienced and well-known. And when ties of relations are not maintained, then each one of the aforementioned benefits turn to their opposites, and great harm comes to the society.

1. Huqooq Da'at Ilayhal-Fitrah wa Qarrarthash-Sharee'ah (pp.11-13)
2. Related by al-Bukhaaree (no.1987) and Muslim (no.3456)
3. Related by al-Bukhaaree (no.6138), from Abu Hurayrah radiallaahu 'anhu.
4. Related by al-Bukhaaree (no.5911).

Sheikh Muhammed Saalih Ibn al-Uthaimeen
Al-Istiqaamah Magazine, Issue No.6 - Dhul-Qa'dah 1417H / March 1997

Sunday, 18 July 2010

Ramadaan: A Reminder of Unity

Ramadaan: A Reminder of Unity

By Shaykh Muhammad Nasirud-Deen al-Albaanee

The month of Ramadaan should be a reminder to the Muslims about the disunity amongst their ranks.

Aboo Hurayrah (radiyallaahu ’anhu) related that the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said: "Fast when they fast, end the fast when they end theirs, and sacrifice the day that thy sacrifice. " [2]

Al-Bayhaqee relates by way of Aboo Haneefah, who said: ’Alee Ibnul-Aqmar related to me, from Masrooq, who said: I entered upon ’Aa‘ishah on the day of ’Arafah, so she said: "Serve Masrooq with some gruel, and make it more sweeter." Masrooq said: Nothing prevented me from fasting this day except that I feared that it may be the day of Sacrifice. So ’Aaishah said to me: "The day of Sacrifice is when the people sacrifice, and the day of ending the fast is when the people end their fast."

This chain of narration is jayyid (good), due to what has preceded.


Imaam at-Tirmidthee says after quoting the hadeeth:

"One of the People of Knowledge has explained this hadeeth by saying: Its meaning is to fast and end the fast along with the Jamaa'ah and the majority of people."
As-San'aanee said in Sublus-Salaam (2/72):

"In this (hadeeth) is a proof that being in agreement with the people is accepted in establishing the ’Eed, and that the individual person who believes that it is the day of ’Eed - because of sighting the moon - then it is obligatory upon him to be in agreement with the people, and that the ruling of the people - concerning the Prayer, breaking the fast, and sacrificing - is binding upon that individual."

Ibnul-Qayyim (rahimahullaah) mentioned this meaning in Tahdheebus-Sunan (3/214), and said: "It is said: In it is a refutation of those who say that whosoever knows the positions of the moon you due to astronomical calculations, then it is permissible for him to fast and end the fast, even if others do not know. It is also said: 'that the individual witness who sees the moon, but the qaadee (judge) has not accepted his testimony, then there is no fasting for him, just as there is no fasting for the people."

Abul-Hasan as-Sindee said in Haashiyah ’alaa Ibn Maajah, after mentioning the hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah which was related by at Tirmidthee: "And its apparent meaning is: That there is no room for individual (opinions) to enter into these affairs, nor to act individually in this. Rather, this affair goes back to the Imaam (the Leader of the Muslims) and the Jamaa’ah (united body of Muslims under the Imaam). It is obligatory upon the individuals to follow the Imaam and the Jamaa’ah. From this is that if an individual sights the moon, but the qaadee rejects his witness, then the individual has no right in these matters, but rather he must follow the Jamaa’ah in this."

And this is the meaning which is evident from the hadeeth, and which is emphasized by the fact that ’Aa‘ishah (radiyallaahu ’anhaa) used it with Masrooq when he prevented himself from fasting on the day of ’Arafah, fearing that it could be the day of Sacrifice. So she explained to him that there is no weight given to his individual opinion in this, and that he should follow the Jamaa’ah. So she said to him: "The day of Sacrifice is when the people sacrifice, and the day of ending the fast is when the people end their fast.’’

And this is what is befitting for the easy-natured and tolerant Sharee’ah (Prescribed Islaamic law), one of the goals of which is uniting the people together, unifying their ranks and keeping away from them all that would split their comprehensive unity - from the individual opinions. So the Sharee’ah dos not give any weight to the individual opinion in matters concerning ’ibaadah jamaa’iyyah (collective acts of worship); such as Fasting, -‘Eed, and Prayer in congregation - even if the opinion is correct, from one angle. Do you not see that the Sahaabah (the Companions) (radiyallaahu ’anhum) used to pray behind each other. So from them were those who held the view that touching a woman, or the flowing of blood from the body invalidates the wudhoo’ (ablution), along with those who did not hold this view. From them were those who would complete the Prayer whilst travelling, whilst others shortened. Yet these, and other such differences, did not prevent them from collectively praying behind a single Imaam and deeming it to be acceptable. And this is because they knew that tafarruq (splitting-up) in the Religion is more evil than having ikhtilaaf (differences) in some opinions. Indeed, the matter with one of them reached the extent that he would not even deem acceptable any opinion which differed with the great Imaam in the major gatherings; such as the gathering at Minaa (during Hajj), to the extent that he would totally abandon acting upon his opinion in that gathering - fleeing from that which could result from this evil, because of acting according to his own opinion.

Thus, Aboo Daawood relates (1/307) that ’Uthmaan (radiyallaahu ’anhu) prayed four rak’ahs at Minaa, so ’Abdullaah Ibn Mas’ood criticised him saying: "I prayed two rak’ahs with the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam), and two rak’ahs with Aboo Bakr, and two rak’ahs with ’Umar, and two rak’ahs with ’Uthmaan in the beginning of his rule, then he completed it (i.e. by praying four rak’ahs). After that the ways became divided with you all. So I hope from these four rak’ahs, that two of them would be accepted." Then Ibn Mas’ood prayed four rak’ahs. So it was said to him: You criticised ’Uthmaan, yet you prayed four? So he said: "Differing is evil."

So those who continue splitting-up with regards to the Prayer, and who refuse to follow the local Imaams in some mosques - especially in the wilt Prayer during Ramadhaan - using as proof that this is against their madhhab (school of thought), then they should reflect upon the above mentioned hadeeth and athar (narration). Likewise, those who claim knowledge of astronomy and who, due to their opinion, fast and end their fast alone - preceding or lagging behind the majority of Muslims, not seeing any problem in doing so - should also reflect upon the previously quoted proofs. So all of them should consider, and reflect upon the knowledge that has been mentioned. Perhaps they will find for themselves a cure for their ignorance and self-delusion, so that they may then become a unified rank along with their Muslim brothers - for indeed the Hand of Allaah is over the Jamaa’ah.


[1] Silsilatul-Ahaadeethus-Saheehah (1/442-445), the hadeeth authentication has been abridged and edited.
[2] Saheeh: Related by at-Tirmidthee (2/37). Shaykh al-Albaanee authenticated it in as-Saheehah (no.224).

Saturday, 17 July 2010

The Importance of Intention

The Importance of Intention

A very detailed explanation of the hadeeth of intention from the tremendous work of Ibn Rajab.

Below are translated excerpts from the beautiful work by Imaam Ibn Rajab al-Hanbalee (RH) entitled 'Jaami Al-Uloom wal Hikm' in which he has a detailed commentary on 50 ahaadeeth of the Messenger, sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam. (Basically an-Nawawee's 42 ahaadeeth with 8 added on)


Umar bin al-Khattaab relates that: 'I heard the Messenger of Allaah, sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam, saying, "verily actions are by intentions, and for every person is what he intended. So the one whose hijra was to Allaah and His Messenger, then his hijrah was to Allaah and His Messenger. And the one whose hijrah was for the world to gain from it, or a woman to marry her, then his hijrah was to what he made hijrah for." Related by Bukhaaree and Muslim.

This hadeeth is singularly narrated by Yahya bin Sa'eed al-Ansaaree from Muhammad bin Ibraaheem at-Taimee from Alqama bin Abee Waqqaas from Umar bin al-Khattaab (RA) and this hadeeth has no other authentic route as stated by Ali bin al-Madinee and others.

Al-Khattaabee said, 'I do not know of a difference concerning this amongst the Ahlul Hadeeth.' This despite the fact that it has been reported from the hadeeth of Abu Sa`eed and others – and it is said that it is reported via many routes – but none of them are authentic according to the Hadeeth Masters.

Then from al-Ansaaree a huge group of people reports this hadeeth. It is said that the number is more than two hundred, and it is also said that the number is more than seven hundred. From the most notable of these are: Imaam Maalik, ath-Thawree. Al-Awzaa`ee, ibn al-Mubaarak, Layth bin Sa`d, Hammaad bin Zayd, Shu`bah, ibn Uyaynah and others. The scholars have agreed to its authenticity and have unanimously accepted it.


And Imaam Bukhaaree commences his Saheeh with this hadeeth and gives it the place of an opening lecture from him thereby indicating that every action that is done not desiring the Face of Allaah is invalid bearing no fruits in this world and in the Hereafter.

This is why Abdurrahmaan al-Mahdee said, "If I were to write a book composed of chapters, I would place in every chapter the hadeeth of Umar bin al-Khattaab to do with 'actions are by intentions'."

And from him that he said, "whosoever desires to author a book then let him start with the hadeeth to do with 'actions are by intentions.'"

This hadeeth is one of the hadeeth around which the whole religion revolves, and it is related from Imaam ash-Shaafi'ee that he said, "this hadeeth constitutes a third of all knowledge."

Imaam Ahmad said, "the foundations of Islaam are upon three ahaadeeth:

The hadeeth of Umar, 'verily actions are by intention'

The hadeeth of Aa`ishah, 'whosoever introduces into this affair of ours that which is not part it, then it is rejected.'

The hadeeth of Nu`maan bin Bashir, 'the halaal is clear and the haraam is clear.'"

Ishaaq bin Raahawayah said, "the foundations of the religion are upon four hadeeth:

The hadeeth of Umar, 'verily actions are by intention.'

The hadeeth, 'the halaal is clear, and the haraam is clear.'

The hadeeth, 'verily the creation of one of you comes together in the stomach of his mother for 40 days.'

The hadeeth, 'whosoever invents into this affair of ours anything which is not part of it, then it is rejected.'"

Abu Ubayd said, "the Prophet, sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam, collected all the affairs of the Hereafter in one statement, 'whosoever introduces into this affair of ours that which is not part of it, then it is rejected.' And all the affairs of this world in one statement, 'verily actions are by intentions.' Place them in every chapter."

Abu Daawood said, "I looked into the hadeeth of the Musnad (i.e. of Ahmad) and it consisted of 40 000 ahaadeeth. The I looked again and (found that) the 40 000 ahaadeeth revolved around 4 ahaadeeth:

The hadeeth of Nu'maan bin Bashir, 'the halaal is clear and the haraam is clear.'

The hadeeth of Umar, 'verily actions are by intentions'

The hadeeth of Abu Hurayrah, 'Verily Allaah is pure, and does not accept except that which is pure. And indeed Allaah ordered the Muslims with that which He ordered the Messengers.'

The hadeeth, 'from the excellence of ones Islam is his leaving that which does not concern him.'"

And also from Abu Daawood, "it suffices man that he knows from all these ahaadeeth [the ones he collected in his Sunan] 4 ahaadeeth:

The first: His, sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam, saying, 'verily actions are by intention.'

The second: His saying, sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam, 'from the excellence of a persons Islam is his leaving that which does not concern him.'

The third: His, sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam, saying, 'The believer will not truly believe until he wishes for his brother that which he wishes for himself.'

The fourth: His, sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam, saying, 'the halaal is clear and the haraam is clear.'"

And in another narration from him, "Fiqh revolves around 5 ahaadeeth:

(The hadeeth), 'the halaal is clear and the haraam is clear'

His, sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam, saying, 'do not harm and do not reciprocate harm.'

His saying, 'Verily actions are by intentions.'

His saying, 'The religion is advice/sincerity'

His saying, 'what I forbade you from then stay away from it, and what I ordered you with then do as much of it as you can.'"


His, sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam, saying, 'verily (innamaa) actions are by intention' and in a narration 'actions are by intention' - and both of these statements dictate constraint [to the fact that all actions are in need of intention] according to the correct opinion. And it is not our goal here to direct the discussion towards this or expound in any length on it.

[Ibn Daqeeq al-Eid says in his 'Ihkaam al-Ahkaam': "2: The words 'innamaa' is used for constraint according to what is established in the Usul… and there is agreement over this. The meaning of constraint: is to affirm all that is contained in what is mentioned, and to negate all that falls outside of it…

3: Constraint sometimes dictates an unrestricted constraint (al-Hasr al-Mutlaq) and sometimes a specified/restricted constraint (Hasr Makhsoos) – which it is, can be understood from the context and secondary evidences. For example the saying of Allaah, 'innama anta mundhir' (indeed you are only a warner) 13:7. The literal sense of this verse confines the Messenger's, sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam, duties only to warning, but the Messenger is not merely confined to this rather he has many beautiful descriptions such as giving glad tidings and others. But the understanding of the (context) of the words dictates that he is constrained to giving warnings only to those who believe and negates his ability to have descend (from the heavens) the Signs that the disbelievers wish. (This then is an example of restricted constraint)

Similar to this is his, sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam, saying, 'indeed I am only a man (innama ana bashr) and when you fall into a dispute and come to me…' Its meaning: his being constrained to (normal) human qualities with respect to his inability to examine what is inside the disputants (i.e. see into their hearts and minds) not with respect to every quality for indeed the Messenger, sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam, has many other qualities (which are better than the normal human qualities)….

…So when the word 'innamaa' occurs then consider it, if the context and the intention of the words show that the constraint is specific to something then stick to this, and if it is not specific to something then take it to be an unrestricted constraint. With regards to this (unrestricted constraint) is his, sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam, saying, 'indeed (innamaa) actions are by intentions.' Allaah knows best."]

And they differ as to the limits of his saying, 'actions are by intention'. And many of the later Muslims think that the limit is that the action is made correct, able to be considered and acceptable with the intention. And in this what is meant is that action which is legislated (Shar`i) needing an intention. And as for what is not requiring an intention like habitual actions such as eating, drinking, dressing and other things, or like returning the trust or guarantees then none of these is in need of an intention.

And others say, rather 'actions' here is to be understood in its generality, and nothing is exempt from it. And some of them relate this as the saying of the majority, meaning the majority of the early people. And this occurs in the words of ibn Jareer at-Tabaree and Abu Taalib al-Makki and others from the early Muslims. And it is clear from the words of Imaam Ahmad, he said in a narration, 'I like that for every action, from prayer or fast or charity or any action of righteousness that there be an intention preceding the action. The Prophet, sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam, said, "actions are by intentions", and this is taken for every matter.'

Fadl bin Ziyaad said, 'I asked Abu Abdullaah (i.e. Ahmad) about the intention in action, how should it be? He said, "one should treat his self when he intends to do an action, not desiring by it the people (i.e. showing off)."'

…And it is possible that the limits of his, sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam, saying, 'actions are by intention' (is that the action is made) good, or corrupt, or acceptable, or rejected, or rewarded, or not rewarded according to the intention. Therefore this statement informs us of the Islamic ruling concerning this- and that is that the correctness or incorrectness of the action is in accordance to the correctness or incorrectness of the intention, and its acceptance and rejection is according to its conclusion.

And his saying after this, 'and for everyone is what he intended' is informing that he will not gain anything from his action except what he intended. So if he intended good, he gets good. And if he intended evil then he gets evil. And this second statement (of the hadeeth) is not merely reiterating the first, for the first statement points to the fact that the goodness or corruptness of the action is according to the intention necessary for that action to exist. The second statement points to the fact that the reward of the actor for his action is in accordance to his good intention, and that the punishment for his action is in accordance to his evil intention. And if the intention is permissible (mubah), then the action is permissible (mubah), and there is not for it any reward or punishment.

Therefore the action in itself is good, or bad, or permissible according to the intention behind it necessary for that action to exist. And the reward of the person or his punishment is according to the intention upon which the action became righteous, or bad or permissible.


Know that Niyyah (intention) in the language is a type of purpose (qasd) and desire (iraadah). And Niyyah in the speech of the scholars occurs in two meanings (or contexts):

1) To distinguish different types of worship, one from the other. Like distinguishing Dhuhr prayer from Asr prayer, or distinguishing the fast of Ramadaan from other fasts. Or distinguishing actions of worship from actions of habit, like distinguishing the bath from impurity from the baths simply to get clean. And this meaning of Niyyah you will commonly find in many of the works of the Legal Jurists.

2) To distinguish the intended objective of the action - is it for Allaah only and for no other, or for Allaah and other than him? And this is the meaning of intention you will find in the works of the Gnostics (`aarifoon), in their discussions on sincerity and those things that it is dependant on. And this (meaning) you will often find in the statements of the Salaf.

And Abu Bakr ibn Abee Dunya wrote a book, calling it, "Sincerity and intention', and he meant this (second meaning) of intention. And it is the meaning of intention which is repeatedly mentioned in the speech of the Prophet , sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam,, sometimes with the word niyyah, other times with the word iraadah, and sometimes with words close in meaning to the above two. And the mention of intention occurs in the Qur'aan many times, by the use of words other then niyyah but with similar meaning…


We have mentioned that the meaning of niyyah in the speech of the Prophet, sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam, and the Salaf of this nation was used generally in the second sense and therefore carries the meaning of Iraadah.

And in the Qur`aan often it describes intention with the word iraadah as in His saying,

"Among you are some that desire (yureed) this world and some that desire the hereafter" (3:152)

"Whosoever desires the life of this world and it's adornment" (11:15)

"And keep yourself patiently with those who call on their Lord morning and evening seeking (yureedoona) His Face, and let not your eyes overlook them, desiring the pomp and glitter of this life." (18:28)

And sometimes niyyah is described with the word ibtigaa (desire) as in His saying,

"Except only the desire (ibtigaa) to seek the Face of His Lord, the Most High" (92:20)

"And you spend not except seeking (ibtigaa) the Face of Allaah" (2:272)

And as for what occurs in the Sunnah and statements of the Salaf to do with this (second) meaning of niyyah then there is a large number, and we will mention some of them: …

The Messenger, sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam, said, "People will be gathered upon their intentions" [Ibn Maajah, Saheeh al-Jaami no.7898]

"Mankind will be resurrected upon their intentions" [Muslim]

"Verily those slain on the battlefield will be resurrected upon their intentions" [ibn Abee ad-Dunya]

"For the ones whose concern is this world Allaah will scatter his affair, and place poverty between his two eyes. And he will not get from the world except what is written for him. And for the one whose intention is the hereafter Allaah will gather for him his affair and place contentment in his heart, and the world will come to him willingly" [ibn Maajah, Saheeh al-Jaami no.6386]

And Yahya bin Abu Katheer said, "Learn your intention for it is more serious than the action."

Zayd ash-Shaamee said, "verily I like that I have an intention for everything even if it be eating and drinking"

And he also said, "have intention for everything, desiring the good, even if it be leaving for the toilet"

Sufyaan ath-Thawree said, "I have not treated anything more difficult then my intention, because it keeps changing."

Yusuf bin Asbaat said, "purifying the intention from its corruption is harder upon the workers than long striving (i.e. in their work)"

Ibn al-Mubaarak said, "maybe a small action is made great by its intention, and maybe a great action is made small by its intention"

Ibn `Ijlaan said, "the action is not acceptable except by three: Taqwaa of Allaah, and good
intention, and correctness (i.e. conformity to the Sunnah)"
Fudayl bin Iyaadh said, "Allaah wishes from you only your intentions and desires (iraadah)"
[I have not quoted all the verses, ahaadeeth and narrations here].

All of these were reported by ibn Abee ad-Dunyaa in his 'al-Ikhlaas wa an-Niyyah'.

And with this, the meaning of Imaam Ahmad's statement becomes known, that the foundation of the religion is upon three ahaadeeth:

"Verily actions are by intention"

"Whosoever introduces into this affair of ours that which is not part of it then it is rejected"

"The halaal is clear and the haraam is clear"

For the whole religion returns to doing the commanded actions and staying away from the forbidden actions and stopping at the doubtful matters as is contained in the hadeeth of Nu`maan bin Basheer. And all of this is perfected upon two matters:

1) That outwardly the action be done as taught by the Sunnah, and this is to be found in the hadeeth of Aa`ishah, "whosoever introduces into this affair of ours that which is not part of it then it is rejected."

2) That inwardly the action be done seeking the Face of Allaah, as is contained in the hadeeth, "verily actions are by intention."
Fudayl bin `Iyaadh said about His saying, "That he may test which of you is best in action' (67:2)
- "who is sincere in it and correct in it. And the action, if it is sincere and not correct then it is not accepted. And if it is correct and not sincere then it is not accepted. It is only accepted when it is both sincere and correct. And it is sincere when it is for the sake of Allaah, and correct when it is done according to the Sunnah."

And the proof of what Fudayl said lies in the verse,

"So whosoever hopes for the meeting with His Lord, let him work righteousness and associate none as a partner in the worship of His Lord " (18:110)